A census is a count. The Census as defined and limited by the U.S. Constitution is a count of people per household living in the United States. Not dollars, dogs, birthdays or names.
Counting, by its very nature indicates questions of how many. Since our Constitution says the Federal Government may ask, once every ten years, “how many people live in your house”, that falls in line with what a census is. How many. Any other question makes it a survey and not a census..
Questions of who, where and other types are excluded by definition and not authorized by the U. S. Constitution. See the 10th Amendment for the minuscule amount of authority the Federal Government is granted over any citizen of this Repubulic. Virtually anything not specifically permitted to the Federal Government by the Constitution is reserved to the People and to the States.
I did my part as a citizen of this great Republic today. I told the census taker—the counter—how many people live in my household. He appeared rather unhappy that that was the only piece of information I gave him, but I don’t answer any surveys.